A Flexible sigmoidoscopy allows the physician to examine the bottom third of the colon which includes the rectum, the sigmoid and the descending colon by using a flexible endoscope. Flexible sigmoidoscopy can detect inflamed tissue, abnormal growths and ulcers. The procedure is used to look for early signs of cancer and can help doctors diagnose unexplained changes in bowel habits, abdominal pain, bleeding from the anus and weight loss. A laxative or an enema may be required before a flexible sigmoidoscopy. Patients should inform their doctor of all medical conditions and any medications, vitamins, or supplements taken regularly, including aspirin products, arthritis medications, blood thinners, diabetes medications and vitamins that contain iron.